Age, sex, calcium intake in the diet, dose and duration of fluoride intake and renal efficiency in fluoride handling are the factors which influence the outcome. The following points of advice are important to reduce any risks: A very tiny amount of fluoride provides protection for teeth, but too much at an early age can have adverse effects which although treatable, are best avoided in the first place. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2004;32:319–21, Skeletal fluorosis in humans: a review of recent progress in the understanding of the disease. This was eventually established as due to excessive amounts of naturally occurring fluoride in the drinking water. Sometimes deep surface cleaning and/or whitening treatment is sufficient to improve the teeth’s appearance, but in more severe cases it is often necessary to cover the enamel with bonded tooth-colored resin materials or a porcelain veneer. 2018;10(5):e469-e476. }); Is my child at increased risk of fluorosis if they are being fed infant formula? It is a fine line between what is considered too much and what is considered to be an acceptable level of fluoride as far as teeth are concerned. When water is labeled as intended for infants, the water must meet tap water standards established by the EPA and indicate that the water is not sterile. Roberson, Heymann, Swift . 2010;13(1):47-53. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2883808/, Akapata ES. A combination of osteosclerosis, osteomalacia and osteoporosis of varying degrees as well as exostosis formation characterizes the bone lesions 7). In more severe cases, however, the marks may become darker over time and present a cosmetic problem. Most dental fluorosis in the U.S. is very mild to mild, appearing as white spots on the tooth surface that may be barely noticeable and do not affect dental function. 2006;114:123–6. You should clean your child’s teeth as soon as the first tooth appears by brushing without toothpaste with a small, soft-bristled toothbrush and plain water. Only children aged 8 years and younger are at risk because this is when permanent teeth are developing; children older than 8 years, adolescents, and adults cannot develop dental fluorosis. Do not let a child younger than 6 years old use a fluoride mouth rinse unless the child’s doctor or dentist recommends it. The severity of the condition depends on the dose (how much), duration (how long), and timing (when consumed) of fluoride intake. Ready-to-feed formula contains little fluoride and does not cause dental fluorosis. Endemic skeletal fluorosis is a chronic metabolic bone and joint disease caused by ingesting large amounts of fluoride either through water or rarely from foods of endemic areas 6). But overexposure while teeth are developing can lead to dental fluorosis, a condition which attacks enamel and can be quite unsightly. After age 2, most children get the right amount of fluoride to help prevent cavities if they drink water that contains fluoride and brush their teeth with a pea-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste twice a day. 11th ed. These bottled waters are labeled as de-ionized, purified, demineralized, or distilled and are without any fluoride added after purification treatment (FDA requires the label to indicate when fluoride is added). Bone density measurement is a tool for early diagnosis. If the children are younger than 6 years, however, then the dentist or physician should weigh the risks for developing decay without supplements with the possibility of developing dental fluorosis. Children under the age of 6 should not be given fluoride mouthwashes. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5220601. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({ When practical, supplements should be prescribed as chewable tablets or lozenges to maximize the topical effects of fluoride. Even a porcelain veneer which is very thin can be made to successfully cover quite bad discoloration and make a tooth look as good as new. No effective therapeutic agent is available which can cure fluorosis. Polishing of composite restoration was accomplished with Super Snap. Fluorosis may occasionally affect the first set of teeth, but is only really of concern when it appears in the second or permanent set of teeth because the discoloration is itself permanent. Fluoride is important for fighting cavities. India: Varghese Publication; 1991. Fluoride supplements can be prescribed for persons as appropriate or used in school-based programs. Check with the doctor or dentist about your child’s specific fluoride needs. Oral Hygiene Tips and Facts You Need To Know. The Damaging Effects Of Bulimia On Our Teeth, Oral Lichen Planus – Symptoms, Causes and Treatment Advice, Wisdom Teeth Pain and Other Common Symptoms, Dental Bridges – All Your Questions Answered. Then a desensitizing agent (Fluorinated protector, Beyond Technology Inc) was painted and left undisturbed on the surfaces of bleached teeth for five minutes. To earlier thinking, severe form hardly ever occurs in communities where the level of fluoride supplements can prescribed! 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